Medicaid Asset Preservation with IRAs

 

Spousal Protection Trusts  A very powerful asset preservation tool William M. Gatesman employs with married couples are Wills with Spousal Protection Trusts, a planning tool developed by Mr. Gatesman. With this tool, both spouses prepare a Will in which there is a trust for the benefit of the surviving spouse. Such trust is designed to be funded, not with assets passing through the estate, but with assets passing outside of probate, through pay on death accounts, beneficiary designations, life estate deeds, and by other means.

 

Protecting the Surviving Spouse  By using such a Spousal Protection Trust, spouses can set up their affairs such that, after the first of them dies, all the assets are set aside in the trust, available without restriction to the surviving spouse, but fully protected should the surviving spouse require long term care in a nursing home. Moreover, if such trust is properly implemented, the surviving spouse would be able to qualify for and obtain Medicaid benefits for long term care without delay if and when such spouse falls ill and requires nursing home care. In this way, all of the couple’s assets, to the extent not used by the surviving spouse prior to admission to a nursing home, would be preserved for future generations, and thereafter, all care costs would be covered by Medical Assistance. This is a very powerful planning strategy, but care must be taken to ensure that the plan is properly implemented.

 

Implementing the Plan with Tax Deferred Assets Often, when using this tool, the largest assets passing into such spousal protection trust are IRAs and other tax advantaged retirement plans. When this type of asset passes to a beneficiary – and the Spousal Protection Trust would be the beneficiary – special rules apply to continue the income tax deferral that is the hallmark of such investments. But the traditional method of preserving the tax deferred status of such accounts – by making regular required minimum distributions to the individual beneficiary – can reduce the primary benefit of using a Spousal Protection Trust, which is to protect all of the couple’s wealth if and when the surviving spouse requires long term care in a nursing home, which care could be paid for by the Medicaid program.

 

Asset Preservation with Tax Deferral  With proper guidance, however, a married couple can implement a plan that allows them to get the best of both worlds, that is, to prolong the income tax deferral on IRAs and qualified benefit plans for the longest time possible, on the one hand, and to prevent distributions of income and principal to the surviving spouse if and when such spouse might require long term care in a nursing home, on the other hand, thereby maximizing family wealth preservation.

 

Tax Planning Component of the Spousal Protection Trust  The key to obtaining “the best of both worlds” as discussed above is to structure the spousal protection trust as a retirement plan “accumulation trust.” Typically, estate planners will have clients utilize what is known as a “conduit trust” as the beneficiary of an IRA or other tax deferred retirement plan to ensure continued income tax deferral. However, while a properly drafted conduit trust will ensure continuing income tax deferral because such trust mandates that the retirement plan annual minimum distributions be paid from the trust to the surviving spouse, using a conduit trust for Medicaid asset preservation planning is counterproductive because all such minimum distributions received by the surviving spouse would be required to be paid to the nursing home as part of the surviving spouse’s contribution to her cost of care even after she would qualify for Medicaid benefits. [To be sure, the surviving spouse still could get Medicaid for nursing home care, however, the distribution of the required minimum distribution from the conduit trust to such spouse is a waste of assets because, with proper planning, such payments can be avoided.]

 

Putting it All Together  The way to continue the income tax deferral and to maximize income and asset preservation is to employ an accumulation trust in the Spousal Protection Trust. With an accumulation trust, the required minimum distribution from the retirement plan is distributed to the Trustee, but the Trustee is not required to pay such amount to the surviving spouse. Nevertheless because of the nature of the trust, the income tax deferral will continue to be allowed. This is easier said than done, however, because the tax law governing accumulation trusts for IRAs and other tax deferred retirement plans is intricate and complex.

 

Choosing the Right Advisor  Is it important, therefore, that the advocate you choose to assist you with your asset preservation estate planning be well versed in all aspects of law that would affect your situation, including estate planning, income tax planning, IRA planning, Medicaid planning, and other areas.

 

Qualifications  Before he studied law, William M. Gatesman obtained a Masters Degree in Accountancy with a focus on tax planning, and before becoming a lawyer, Mr. Gatesman worked as a tax consultant with a major CPA firm, and as a tax accountant in a major corporation. Mr. Gatesman has spent his career as a lawyer working in the area of estate planning and Medicaid planning, and related areas. Mr. Gatesman has the education, knowledge, and experience in all the areas of law that must be considered when doing asset preservation planning, and Mr. Gatesman relies on this background when he assist clients in employing Spousal Protection Trusts that include accumulation trusts as recipients of IRA and other retirement plan assets.

 

Maximizing Wealth Preservation  All of this knowledge and expertise enables William M. Gatesman to utilize sophisticated legal tools, such as the Spousal Protection Trust, which trust allows clients to maximize wealth preservation if a surviving spouse should require nursing home care in the future while still allowing such spouse to prolong the income tax deferral afforded by the inherited IRA or other retirement plan for as long as possible.

What is Medicaid Planning?

Our website has a new look! I hope that you enjoy the refreshing update to the Maryland Elder Law website. As part of our website update, we have added a new page that answers the question, “What is Medicaid planning?”

 

To find out the answer to that question, you may click on that question in the black bar at the top of this page if you are viewing this page from your computer. Or you may simply click on the question that follows: “What is Medicaid Planning?” and the page that answers that question will open in a new browser window. Call us at 301-260-0095 for more information.

 

Applying for Medicaid Gives State Access to Bank Records

In order to combat fraud and abuse, Congress passed a law in 2008 (referred to in this article as the “Asset Verification Statute”), which law just now is being implemented in Maryland, directing States to impose an electronic asset verification process to facilitate asset disclosure relating to Medicaid applications for long term care.

When Disclosure is allowed.  In most instances, under Federal law, banks may not disclose one’s financial records to the government except where there is a valid law enforcement or judicial subpoena or summons, or a search warrant.  However, that same federal law allows the account holders themselves to authorize such disclosure through a written instrument.

The Asset Verification Statute directs that States that provide Medicaid benefits to aged, blind or disabled persons to cover the costs of long term care in a nursing home, or care in assisted living or at home, require the applicants for such benefit programs to provide written authorization to the State to obtain documentation from banks and other financial institutions for accounts owned by the applicant or by any other person (such as the applicant’s spouse) whose assets are considered when one applies for such benefits. Continue reading “Applying for Medicaid Gives State Access to Bank Records”

Sheltering Assets to Maintain Housing Benefits

Various articles on this website address ways in which aged or disabled persons may protect their assets and still get government benefits such as Medicaid for long term care in a nursing home, or Medicaid for health care in the community.  By retaining accumulated assets or protecting assets one is about to inherit, an individual can ensure for herself a better quality of life, especially when the only other alternative is to fully impoverish oneself to retain government benefits.

One tool lawyers utilize to enable clients to shelter assets is a trust.  There are various types of trusts that can be employed depending on the individual’s circumstances, and each type of trust has its advantages and disadvantages.

For example, the law will allow a disabled person to keep his or her accumulated wealth to allow for a higher quality of life and to still obtain Medicaid benefits.  [Such opportunity is separate and distinct from the benefit under the Affordable Care Act which allows non-disabled people with low incomes to obtain Medicaid health insurance.  Moreover, this long-standing opportunity afforded to disabled persons likely will persist even if the President and Congress were to repeal the Affordable Care Act as they have threatened to do.] Continue reading “Sheltering Assets to Maintain Housing Benefits”

The Secret World of Medicaid Regulation

Potential clients sometimes ask William Gatesman whether they can pursue their legal matters themselves.  Often, the advice in response to such an inquiry is that the client would obtain a more favorable outcome using the services of a knowledgeable lawyer.  A key component of that advice is that the lawyer should be knowledgeable.

Unfortunately for the general public, when it comes to applying for Medicaid benefits, there is a limited pool of lawyers in Maryland who can be viewed as being truly knowledgeable about all of the nuances in the Medicaid eligibility rules.

This should not be the case.  Maryland law, and in particular, the Maryland Administrative Procedures Act, mandates that the rules governing such matters as the Maryland Medicaid program be promulgated and implemented through a transparent public process.  Through that process, such rules are to be disclosed and maintained in a manner to make them easily accessible to the public.

Unfortunately, with respect to the Maryland Medicaid program, some of the rules are complex, hidden, and accessible by only a few who know where and when to look for them.  One of the problems arises because Medicaid is a joint Federal and State program.  Notwithstanding that, the rules as they apply in Maryland (Medicaid rules vary state by state) should be put in place in accordance with the Administrative Procedures Act, however, the Maryland Administrative Procedures Act routinely is disregarded.  Indeed, a senior Medicaid official recently advised William Gatesman that there is an administrative freeze by the Maryland Governor that prohibits any action toward implementing new regulations.

So, then, how do Medicaid lawyers in Maryland know what are the rules that apply to their clients?  Sadly, sometimes the answer to that question is that some of those lawyers don’t know. Continue reading “The Secret World of Medicaid Regulation”

Don’t Let the Notary Public Skip a Step

Many legal documents, such as deeds, trusts, powers of attorney, and contracts, either require, or are made more legitimate, by having a notary public sign the document. This is referred to as “notarizing” the document.

In Maryland, a person who is a Notary Public must obtain a license, must be sworn in by an officer of the Circuit Court, and must follow certain rules in the exercise of the Notary Public’s powers. A Notary Public must ensure that she knows the person who is signing the document. This usually is accomplished by the Notary Public reviewing that person’s driver’s license or passport.

Then, after witnessing the individual sign the document, the Notary Public will complete what is known as a Notary Jurat, which is a section of the legal document in which the Notary Public enters certain information, including the expiration date of the Notary Public’s license, signs the document, and affixes his or her seal to the document, which seal often takes the form of a special ink stamp on the document page.

In addition to those actions, the rules governing the actions of a Notary Public require that the Notary Public maintain a “fair register” of all of the acts undertaken by the Notary Public. This is one step that often is overlooked. There are lawyers who also are licensed Notary Publics who will witness a client’s signature to a document but might overlook recording the action in a Notary Public fair register. Indeed, I have encountered some lawyer-Notary Publics who were unaware of the requirement to maintain a contemporaneous fair register.

The fair register is an important record because, if a client ever requested it, the Notary Public has an obligation to provide such client with a certified copy of the record of the act that was notarized. For example, some years after a legal document is signed, if there is a question as to the legitimacy of the signature, a party to the legal document may seek out the Notary Public to request a certified copy of the fair register entry memorializing the execution of such legal document. If the notary public did not make an entry in a fair register and did not maintain that fair register as required under the law and regulations governing Notary Publics, then it would be impossible to obtain such a certified copy at some future time.

Knowing these rules, a client who signs a document requiring notarization could make an appropriate inquiry with the Notary Public if the Notary Public did not ask the client to sign Notary Public’s fair register.

William M. Gatesman is both a lawyer and a licensed Notary Public, and is available to assist clients in both capacities.

Are You Paying Too Much to Apply for Medicaid?

The requirements imposed upon individuals seeking Medicaid benefits to pay nursing home costs have become less onerous in recent years.  For many years, Medicaid applicants were required to submit monthly statements for every bank and investment account for every one of the 60 months preceding the filing of the Medicaid application.  Under that regime, someone with only 4 bank accounts would have to submit 240 individual account statements.  Then, once those statements were submitted, they were reviewed by a Medicaid caseworker who was on the lookout for any “questionable” transactions.

“Questionable” transactions include unexplained deposits and substantial expenditures.  Therefore, unless the source is obvious from the account statement, any deposit showing up on those 240 statements would be questioned by the Medicaid caseworker seeking to ascertain the source of the funds deposited, and any payment of $1,000 or more likewise would be called into question.  The problem is magnified if the applicant or the applicant’s spouse had any additional bank or investment accounts.

That being the case, in order to be prepared to address a Medicaid caseworker’s questions, lawyers assisting Medicaid applicants under the old system would review all of the bank statements and seek explanations from the applicant or applicant’s family for any transactions that likely would be questioned.  That process could be time consuming, and, if the law firm performing such review billed the client on an hourly basis, then the legal fees to pursue the Medicaid application would be high.

In recent years, however, the Medicaid application process has been streamlined.  No longer is a Medicaid applicant required to submit 60 individual account statements for each of the 60 months preceding the month the Medicaid application is filed.  Now, applicants need only submit a few statements for the most recent months, and then a single statement for a particular month for each of the preceding five years.  Hence, under current practice, rather than submitting 60 statements for each account, an applicant only has to submit 8 statements, and it is only those 8 statements that will be scrutinized by the Medicaid caseworker.   Thus, for a Medicaid applicant with four accounts, the number of statements needed to be submitted for scrutiny was reduced from 240 to 32.

If one were to continue to operate under the old system and submit 60 monthly statements for each account, and then spend the time to closely scrutinize each of those statements and any transactions that might be called into question, then such person would  be doing extra work for little or no added benefit.

Continue reading “Are You Paying Too Much to Apply for Medicaid?”

Medicaid Updates Transfer Penalty Rule

If one applies for Medicaid to pay for long term care in a nursing home, the state will look to see if the applicant made any gifts in the five years preceding the Medicaid application. If so, then (with some exceptions addressed in various articles on this website) a period of Medicaid ineligibility will be imposed.

For many years before 2014, the period of ineligibility was determined by dividing the amount of the gift by $6,800, which amount was supposed to be the average monthly cost of care in a nursing home. In July, 2014, that number was changed to $7,940. Medicaid has again updated the divisor to take into account Nursing Home care cost inflation.

Effective July 1, 2016, the divisor to determine the number of months of Medicaid ineligibility for gift transfers is $8,684, which means that one would be ineligible for one month for every $8,684 in gifts made during the five years preceding the Medicaid application. Please be aware that this number is revised from time to time. Please contact us to find out the current divisor amount.

Bear in mind that the term “gift” means any transfer of resources with respect to which the transferor did not receive full value. Thus, if a person sold her house for less than it’s fair market value (Medicaid uses assessed value or an appraisal to determine fair market value), then Medicaid will treat the difference between the sales price and the deemed fair market value to be a gift transfer even if such sale was made to a third party in a bona fide arms length transaction.

We at the Gatesman Law Office endeavor to stay at the cutting edge of new developments in Medicaid law and policy.

Should you have any questions as to how this new policy might affect you or a loved one, please contact us by clicking the Contact link on this website.

Bill Gatesman

A People’s Lawyer

A client recently posted a review of my services on AVVO, the independent legal resource website. You may CLICK HERE to read the review.

This client referred to me as “A People’s Lawyer,” and wrote the following:

William Gatesman assisted me in having my father’s trust terminated and the trust assets distributed to me and the other beneficiaries of the trust before the time that those assets were supposed to be distributed. We did this with a petition to the circuit court and the court allowed the distribution without holding a hearing based upon Mr. Gatesman’s written petition. And, while I engaged Mr. Gatesman to obtain this result, he went a step further and negotiated with the Trustee’s attorney to get the trustee to reimburse me for expenses I had paid relating to my father’s death, something I had been trying to do without success. Finally, Mr. Gatesman proposed and worked out an arrangement whereby the other trust beneficiaries agreed to reimburse me for a portion of my legal fees.

I am very pleased with Mr. Gatesman’s representation. He was easy to work with, he got me the result I had requested, and he made suggestions for other ways I could benefit from the representation and succeeded in obtaining those results. I highly recommend William M. Gatesman.

When a Parent Dies Owning a House with a Mortgage, May the Children Inherit the House Without Getting a New Mortgage?

When a parent dies owning a house that is subject to a mortgage, the question arises whether a child or other beneficiary of the parent’s estate can inherit the real property without obtaining a new mortgage by simply continuing to make the payments on the existing mortgage.

In general, mortgages are subject to a “due on sale clause,” which is a term in the mortgage agreement that allows the lender to accelerate the loan (that is, immediately collect the balance due) upon the transfer, or retitling of the real property to another person. However, under Federal law, there are a number of transfers that may be made without triggering a due on sale clause, including a transfer of the property to a relative of the deceased owner as a consequence of the owner’s death.

That Federal law is known as the “Garn-St Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982”, which is codified at 12 USC 1701j-3.

Continue reading “When a Parent Dies Owning a House with a Mortgage, May the Children Inherit the House Without Getting a New Mortgage?”